| 网站首页 | 文章中心 | 图片中心 | 

 
加入收藏
设为首页
联系站长

简体中文

您现在的位置: 徐继畬研究网 >> 文章中心 >> English >> 正文
                        The Speech of Professor Fred W.Drake in the Ceremony at the Washington Monument, May 15,1997         ★★★ 【字体:
The Speech of Professor Fred W.Drake in the Ceremony at the Washington Monument, May 15,1997
作者:Fred W.D…    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:5610    更新时间:2012-6-8    

 

         龙夫威教授在华盛顿纪念徐继畲仪式上的讲话

 

The Speech of Professor Fred W.Drake in the Ceremony at the Washington Monument, May 15,1997

 

          The ceremony on May 15 will commemorate the work of Xu Jiyu  (1795-1873), China's foremost pioneer in creating a modern,global  worldveiw for  imperial  statesmen  and  scholars.  When  Governor  Xu  Jiyufinished his 10-volume book on the world outside China 150  years  ago, he became  the  first  prominent  Chinese  intellectual  to  acknowledgeGeorge Washington as a universal hero and to proclaim the merits of  theAmerican system. American missionaries in China read the book  and  wereimpressed that Washington's role had been recognized and appreciated  byan eminent Chinese scholar-official, so  when  the  Washington  Monumentwas being constructed, they and Chinese  officials  excerpted  the  mostimportant passages  on  Washington  and  has  them  carved  onto  Fukiengranite for placement in the Monument, where they are now found  on  thewest wall at the 200+ foot level.

          Xu had been a member of the war party during the Opium  War  (1839-42) with Britain. After China's  defeat,   however,   as  a  high-ranking official in coastal  Fukien,   he  personally  encountered  therealities of China's changed situation. There he gradually underwent  anintellectual transformation  as  he  conducted  imperial  business  withWestern diplomats,merchants, and missionaries. After  several  years  ofresearch into the sources of European/American power and  with  the  aidof modern maps introduced to him by the American missionary, David Abeel,Governor Xu completed his manuscript in 1847 and pulished his 10- volumework the following year--China's first realistic appraisal  of  the  newworld order, entitled Yinghuan zhilue  [ A  short  account  of  maritimecircuit]. Soon after its publication,  the  Xianfent  Emperor  dismissedGovernor Xu due  to  a  conservative  outcry  against  his  conciliatorypolicies toward Western "barbarians" in the coastal area; he  spent  thenext 13 years in imperial disgrace, a professor of Confucian  literaturein the land-locked northwestern province of his birth.

          Xu's vision of a changed world was confirmed,  however,   whenBritain and France both defeated China in 1860,  soon  after  which  theelderly Xu received imperial appointment to the highest offices  of  therealm in charge of foreign relationsalong with his other offices. hebecame the first president of the Tongwenguan, China's first college  offoreign languages, and Xu's book was acknowedged as an  essential  guidefor China's  relations  with  the  outside  world.   American  diplomatsrecognized his contributions at the time by presenting  him  a  copy  ofGilbert Stuart's Washington. In the end, Xu died a hero venerated  by  ageneration of modernizers.

          After the creation of the People's Republic in 1949,   Chinesehistorians--in part due to Xu's laudatory treatment of the United  Statesin his book, in part due to his handling of foreign affairs,   consideredhim a traitor to the Chinese nation and culture,  and  he  was  expungedfrom history. However,   soon  after  the  publication  of  the  Chinesetranslation of my book on Xu Jiyu's career [Fred W.Drake,  China  Chartsthe World, Hsu Chi-yu and His Gelgraphy of 1848 (Cambridge,MA;  1975) ] and his contributions to Chinese modernization (Beijing,1990), a nation-wide debate began among Chinese historians whether  to  restore  Xu  tohistorical memory. By the end of 1991, a consensus had  developed  amongChina's liberal historians that Xu's career indeed was  significant  andpertinent to many of the questions plaguing China's  leadership  today. So,   Xu's  memory  is  currently  being  revived  in  China,   and  hiscontributions are seen as an early example of the development,   despitehis Confucian ideology, of a realistic,  liberal  view  of  the  outsideworld and of China's role in a new world ordr.  A  museum  dedicated  tohim and his career has been established in his home town(Wutai,Shanxi), and the Xu Jiyu Research Society has already published several books  onXu and related issues.

          The Xu Jiyu Research  Society  has  now  sent  its  Secretary-General, Fuxing Ren, to work with me at the  University  for  the  nextthree months on issues of early Chinese-American relations. While he  isin America, Since this is the 150th anniversary  of  the  completion  ofXu's book on the world, Mr.Ren and his  Society  are  joining  with  theUniversity of Massachusetts to celebrate Xu's contributions  by  holdingthis ceremony at the Monument.

                                                            Fred W.Drake

                                                            Professor

                                                            May 15, 1997

译文:

   515的仪式是为了纪念徐继畲(1795-1873)的著作《瀛环志略》,这是为帝国领导者和学者而写的在开创中国现代全球世界观方面最早的先驱性著作。150 年前,当徐巡抚完成这部关于中国之外世界的10卷本的著作的时候,其中率先推崇乔治.华盛顿是全世界的英雄、公开赞扬美国政治体制的长处的论述,使他变成中国十分著名的知识分子。当时美国的在华传教士们读了此书,他们对华盛顿的作用已经被中国一位著名学者-官员赏识而留下深刻印象,因此,当建造华盛顿纪念塔的时候,他们和中国官员一起摘录了徐书关于华盛顿的十分重要的段落,雕刻到福建的花岗岩上,以供华盛顿纪念塔布置,如今, 此碑仍然在华盛顿纪念塔内西壁200多英尺的高度。

    1839-42年的中英鸦片战争中,徐是主战派的一员。在中国战败之后, 作为任职福建沿海的高级官员,他亲自遇到中国变化了的局势。在这里办理帝国的通商事宜过程中,通过与西方的外交官、商人和传教士的接触,他逐步实现了理性的转变。在经过数年对欧美强大原因的探索,并借助美国传教士大卫.雅裨理向他提供的现代地图,徐巡抚于1847年完成了《瀛环志略》手稿,翌年出版了此书的10卷本,这是中国第一部对新的世界秩序作出现实主义评估的著作。此书出版不久,由于守旧派们强烈反对他在沿海的对西方“夷狄”的抚绥政策的狂喊乱叫,咸丰皇帝撤销了徐巡抚的职务;此后13年,他一直失宠于朝廷,在他出生的西北内陆的一个省靠当儒家经典的教授来打发时光。

    徐关于变化着的世界的远见被证实了,1860年英法联军打败中国之后不久,上了年纪的徐接到朝廷的圣旨,让他在王国的最高机构与其他同僚一起负责处理对外关系。他成了中国第一个外国语学院--同文馆的总管大臣,徐书也被作为处理中国与外部世界关系的基本指南。其间,美国外交官们通过赠送吉尔伯特.斯图尔特画的华盛顿像的复制品来承认他的贡献。最后,徐作为一个推行现代化者的老前辈和受崇敬的英雄而去世。

    1949年人民共和国诞生后,在某种程度上由于徐在其书中对美国的赞美性论述,在某种程度上由于他处理对外事务,中国历史学家把他看作中国及其文化的叛徒,因而把徐从历史书上删去了。不论怎样,当我关于徐继畲的生平及其对中国现代化的贡献的著作(龙夫威:《徐继畲及其瀛环志略》, 麻省剑桥,1975年)的中译本出版之后(北京,1990)不久,中国国内一些历史学者开始讨论是否恢复徐的历史名誉。1991年底,中国开明历史学者已经一致认识到,徐的经历对解决许多困扰今天中国领导者的问题确实是意味深长和合拍的。这样,徐的名誉在中国就被普遍地恢复了。他的贡献被视为这样一个早期典范:他发展了自己信奉的儒家思想,对外部世界及中国在新世界秩序中角色能持务实开明的观点。一个展出他的的画像和生平的博物馆已经在他的家乡山西五台建立,徐继畲学术研究会已经出版了几本关于徐的书籍和刊物。

  现在徐继畲学术研究会委派其秘书长任复兴,今后三个月与我一起在大学从事早期中美关系课题的研究。他在美国的时候,适逢徐关于世界的著作完成150周年,为纪念徐的贡献,任先生及其研究会与麻省大学一起,发起这个在华盛顿纪念塔的仪式。

 

文章录入:任复兴    责任编辑:任复兴 
  • 上一篇文章:

  • 下一篇文章:
  • ::发表评论::
     姓 名:
     评 分: 1分 2分 3分 4分 5分
     评论内容:
     
    最新热点 最新推荐 相关文章
    The Speech of the Secretar
      网友评论:(只显示最新10条。评论内容只代表网友观点,与本站立场无关!)
    Copyright @ 2005-2008 徐继畲研究网 版权所有.