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                        《万国公法》同治甲子版分页足本全文     ★★★★★ 【字体:
《万国公法》足本全文
作者:丁韪良    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:35736    更新时间:2008-12-25    

 

1864年丁韪良译惠顿《万国公法》足本全文
总理各国事务衙门恭亲王及诸大臣鉴定
任复兴据“同治三年岁在甲子孟冬月镌,万国公法,京都崇实馆存版”大字木刻本扫描录入
2008年12月23日录毕

——————————————————————————————————

19世纪中期3种中国人文文本——我的精神归宿(三)
——丁韪良《万国公法》对人权民主宪政思想的迻译,
及民主话语体系的形成

任复兴

对只知道惟一君主政体的中国君臣来说,1864年在恭亲王等支持下出版的丁韪良译惠顿《万国公法》的副作用,就是输入了人权民主宪政思想,并创造了在中国特色专制语言环境中颇有生命力的“人民权利”、“权利”、“君主”、“民主”、“大法(宪法)”等民主话语体系。如今人称洋务运动只涉及“器物层面”等等,表明对《万国公法》及更早的《瀛环志略》阅读不在场。

美国传教士丁韪良译惠顿《万国公法》(惠顿原书叫《国际法原理》,the Elements of International Law, by Henry Wheaton 1836)的出版,在徐继畬引进西方民主价值体系之后,又成功地向“上者专制、下者顺从”的中国君臣介绍了国际游戏规则,及普世意义的人权民主宪政思想,创造性地选择了人民权利、权利、民主、国法、大法等对应词,构筑了民主的话语体系。
咸丰登基,起用对外强硬派,企图改变南京条约确定的中外关系格局,第二次鸦片战争中,中国又挨了痛打。内乱外患,连皇帝都被赶出北京,死于承德。两宫皇太后和辅政的恭亲王的共识是:“庚申之变,创钜痛深”。于是改弦更张,有了同治中兴即自强运动。被称为“洋务内阁”的总理衙门即总署,推出一系列改革变法政策。
总署急于了解国与国之间的游戏规则,1863年文祥请求美国驻华公使蒲安臣推荐国际法著作。驻于上海由中国同事协助,翻译美国哈佛大学惠顿的《国际法原理》的美国长老会传教士丁韪良(W.A.P.Martin字冠西,1827-1916),于是被调到北京。在恭亲王等督导下,此书由陈钦等删改,确定书名,总署资助了500两银,于次年铅印出版。书名页显示:“万国公法,同治三年岁在甲子孟冬月镌,京都崇实馆存板”。总署大臣董恂和丁氏友人、宁波张斯桂分别作序。从董恂序可知,此书面世于这年十二月下旬即1865.1.18-2.14。但按惯例应该以内封“同治三年岁在甲子孟冬月”即1864.10.30-11.28算作出版时间。何况在出版之前,总署王大臣早已用书稿内容处理国际问题了。可能是铅印本不适合宫廷的阅读和审美,同时又有木刻小字小开本和木刻大字大开本出版。此书白纸木刻版大字本,开本大方,镌刻刷印尤其精美。
在《万国公法》翻译过程中,总署就将此书作为外交指南并取得效果。1864年俾斯麦正与丹麦开战,普鲁士新任驻华公使李福斯于这年来到中国,发现大沽口有三艘丹麦商船,他当即命令把它们作为战利品捕获。总署利用领海概念和中普条约的有关条款抗议普鲁士将欧洲争端带到中国来。恭亲王拒绝接见普鲁士新任使节,责怪他以这种方式开始他的任期。事件最后成功解决,李福斯释放了三艘丹麦船,并赔偿1500英镑。
对只知道惟一君主政体的中国君臣来说,《万国公法》的副作用,就是输入了民主宪政思想,并创造了在专制语言环境中颇有生命力的“人民权利”、“权利”、“君主”、“民主”等民主话语体系。
惠顿原书分四卷十二章,551节,700多页。据北图旧馆收藏曹廷杰《万国公法释义》稿本统计,丁译分四卷十二章二百三十一节,标目二百九十有五,79193字。
“第一卷,释公法之义,明其本源,题其大旨”。介绍欧美国际法学派时说:“海付达,日耳曼国名公师也。……海氏以公法分为二派:论世人自然之权,并各国所认他国人民通行之权利者,一也;论诸国交际之道,二也。今时所谓公法者,专指交际之道,可称之曰‘外公法’,以别于各国自治内法也。”据不完全统计,书中3次出现“人民权利”,77次出现“权利”,56次出现“主权”。惠顿原书“Human rights in general”,丁译为“世人自然之权”。丁韪良在晚清传播国际公法知识40余年,在后来的同类著作中说,他对权利等词的创造是颇费苦心的。中国古代,惟有帝王一人受命于天,是权力的主体,亿万臣民均为权力的客体。《荀子•劝学》说:“权利不能倾也,群众不能移也”。《盐铁论•水旱》说:“罢盐、铁,退权利”。但这些“权利”的含义,与西方民主思想家揭示的人民的“自然权利”截然不同。《万国公法》传播的“人民权利”学说,为光绪年间的天赋人权论开了先河。
丁译从不同视角将全世界国家进行了分类。“治国之上权,谓之主权”,据此世界各国分为“自主之国”和“半主之国”两类。从政体划分,他又将世界各国分为“君主之国”和“民主之国”两类。“第二卷,论诸国自然之权”,丁将惠顿书中的Constitution(今译宪法)译为国法、大法。书中出现“国法”120次,“大法”2次。在第十二节:“各国自主其事、自任其责,均可随意行其主权,惟不得有碍他国之权也。其国法(所谓“国法”者,即言其国系君主之,系民主之,并君权之有限、无限者,非同寻常之律法也)或定、或改、或废,均属各国主权。”其中括号中的话,原本所无,是丁特别加上,介绍给“上者专制,下者顺从”的中国君臣的。宪法的实质是限制,是限制当政者无限权势欲的。从美国立国先贤制定宪法时对总统任期的激烈争论,可以看出问题的所在。丁对宪法、宪政和美国三权分立作了简明介绍,抓住了宪政的实质。第十三节称:“美国合邦之大法,保各邦永归民主,无外敌侵伐。”“第十四节,立君举官,他国不得与闻:若民主之国,则公举首领、官长,均由自主,一循国法,他国亦不得行权势于其间也。”“第三卷,论诸国平时往来之权”,“第四节,国乱通使:在君主之国,无论其权之有限、无限,通使之事大抵归国君定夺。在民主之国,或系首领执掌,或系国会执掌,或系首领、国会合行执掌。”第一卷第二章“第二十四节,美国系众邦合一”,介绍了美国三权分立的体制,分别标出“上国制法之权”、“首领行法之权”、“司法之权”,而原书有关内容只分两小节:第53节的书旁小标题是“Legislative Power of the Union”, 第54节的书旁小标题是“Executive Power”. 丁氏将第54节中有关judicial power司法之权的内容分析开来,另外醒目地提要为“司法之权”标示出来,这大约是他最早向中国客观上也向东亚、东南亚汉字国家介绍了美国的三权分立体制。原书第55节书旁标题是“Treaty-making Power”,丁氏标为“立约之权”。
此书出现“君主”35处。古代称帝王叫君王、君上,而不叫君主。查《辞源》“君主”条:“公主。《史记•六国年表•秦灵公八年》:‘初以君主妻河(伯)’”。据现有资料,鸦片战争前后偶然有用君主指称帝王的。此书出现“民主”16次。丁韪良用“民主”这个词分别翻译惠顿原书中Republic、republican、democratic、democratic republic、elective等;今天则分别用共和、民主、选举来翻译这些词。从本质上说,这些英文词的意思是可以互换的。“民主”一词,《尚书》、《左传》等经籍中就有,如“商代夏作民主”,“天惟时求民主”等,但这个“民主”的意思是“民之主”。《万国公法》旧瓶装新酒,将其偷换成“人民当家作主”的含义。“民主”乃吾家之没有者,这样就被误认为吾家之本有者,真是接引得天衣无缝。这很有利于在中国这样有特殊民族心理的大国传播外源性的西方民主思想。以至今天仍有不少人将民主思想当作中国的一大发明。后来有人(如严复)试用“庶建”取代“民主”一词,也没存活下来。
综上所述,《万国公法》用的“权利”、“君主”、“民主”,都是中国古已有之的熟词,却赋予全新的含义。
同文馆首批英文生之一张德彝,1866年在斌椿等带领下到欧洲游历,日记中已能用《万国公法》的新思维、新名词进行观察和思考:“五月十九日 未正至酣博尔。地势不大,周三十余里,乃民主小邦,介诸大国之间。”“六月初八日……至美国乃官天下民主之国也,传贤不传子,每四年众举一人为统领,称‘伯理玺天德’。如人胜其任,公正廉明,仍领之,然至多者不过十二年而已。”“六月十六日……过韩挪尔界,乃小国也,属日尔曼二十七邦之一,亦系民主小国。”“六月二十日……今合众国丁韪良冠西先生所译之《万国公法》,于泰西各约俱备志之……夫阿美利坚……民主是邦,称为合众国……时下国富民强,几甲泰西,前后不越六十年而竟若是,盛衰兴废之间,在天耶,抑在人耶?”

惠顿《国际法原理》与丁韪良汉译《万国公法》的一些比较
Some Compares between Wheaton’s Element of International Law and Matin’s Chinese Translation in Wang Guo Gong Fa

§10  …… According to this writer, the jus gentium consists of two distinct branches:

1.Human rights in general, and those private relations which sovereign States recognize in respect to individuals not subject to their authority.

2.The direct relations existing between those States themselves. ……

丁译:海氏(海付达,Heffter)以公法分为二派:论世人自然之权,并各国所认他国人民通行之权利者,一也;论诸国交际之道,二也。

§19. …… So also the term sovereign is sometimes used in a metaphorical sense merely to denote a state, whatever may be the form of its government, whether monarchical, or republican, or mixed.

丁译:盖无论其国系君主之,系民主之,无论其君权之有限、无限者,皆以君代国也。

§25. …… Thus the House of Orange was expelled from the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands, in 1797, in consequence of the French Revolution and the progress of the arms of France, and a democratic republic substituted in the place of the ancient Dutch constitution.

丁译:即如一千七百九十七年间,荷兰七省有变,法国征之而其王家黜焉,于是易其国法而改作民主之国。

§37. The Republic of Polizza in Dalmatia under the Protectorate of Austria.

丁译:波里萨为民主之小国,凭奥国保护。

United States of America

§52. The Constitution of the United States of America is of a very different nature from that of the Germanic Confederation. It is not merely a league of sovereign States, for their common defence against external violence, but a supreme federal government, or com positive State, acting not only upon the sovereign members of the Union, but directly upon all its citizens in their individual and corporate capacities. It was established, as the Constitution expressly declares, by 'the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to them and their posterity This Constitution, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, an4 treaties made under the authority of the United States, are declared to be the supreme law of the land and that the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

Legislative power of the Union

§53. The legislative power of the Union is vested in a Congress, consisting of a Senate, the members of which are chosen by the local legislatures of the several States, and a House of Representatives, elected by the people in each State. This Congress has power to levy taxes and duties, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the Union; to borrow money on the credit of the United States; to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several [79] States, and with the Indian tribes; to establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy throughout the Union; to coin money, and fix the standard of weights and measures; to establish post-offices and post-roads; to secure to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and discoveries; to punish piracies and felonies on the high seas, and

offences against the law of nations; to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and regulate captures by sea and land; to raise and support armies; to provide and maintain a navy; to make rules for the government of the land and naval forces; to exercise exclusive civil and criminal legislation over the district where the seat of the federal government is established, and over all forts, magazines, arsenals, and dock-yards belonging to the Union, and to make all laws necessary and proper to carry into execution all these and the other powers vested in the federal government by the Constitution.

    Executive power  

§54. To give effect to this mass of sovereign authorities, the executive power is vested in a President of the United States, chosen by electors appointed in each State in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct. The judicial power extends to all cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the Union, and is vested in a Supreme Court, and such inferior tribunals as Con gress may establish. The federal judiciary exercises under this grant of power the authority to examine the laws passed by Congress and the

several State legislatures, and, in cases proper for judicial determination, to decide on the constitutional validity of such laws. The judicial power also extends to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United [8I] States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States; and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects.

丁译:若美国之合邦,其合之之法与日耳曼迥不相同,不惟为自主之国,相连以防御内外强暴,亦是合成之国秉上权,以制盟内各邦,并直及庶民者也。其合盟有云:“此盟为合邦庶民所立,而其所以立之之故,盖欲相合更密,坚公义、保民安、御外暴、聚众庆,且保自主之福爰及后世。”此合盟与凭盟而制之法,并盟约章程凭国权而立者,即为国内无上之法。虽各邦法度律例有所不合,其法院亦必遵此无上之法而断也。

上国制法之权

合邦制法之权在其总会。总会有上下二房,在上房者为各邦之邦会所选,在下房者为各邦之民人所举。总会执权可征赋税,以偿国债、防害、保安,而令合邦共好。可凭合邦之信借钱,可定内外通商章程,定外人人籍之统规,定亏空银钱之统规,铸通宝、定权量、建信局、开递信驿路,保著书制器者有专卖之利,禁海盗罚海上之罪犯,审一切干犯公法之案,定交战之事,赐强偿之牌,定水陆捕拿之规,招兵买粮,造兵船、养水师、定水陆二军条规,专治国都畿内并各处所属炮台、船厂、军器局等,且制法令以成合盟所任之职,凡此均属总会之权。

首领行法之权

其主权职事如此之繁,即有合邦之首领以统行之。首领乃美国之语,所称“伯理玺天德”者是也。其登位也,系各邦派人公议选举,所派之人亦为各邦之民,遵循其邦会之定例而公举者也。

司法之权

司法之权在上法院,并以下总会所设之法院。所有干犯合邦律法盟约之案,听其审断,故总会并各邦会制法,均归合邦之法司。凭此权而察之,遇事即断其与国盟相合,可行与否。所有关乎公使领事等案,海上战利管辖等案,上国所有之公案,数邦所有争端,此邦与彼邦之民所有之争端,彼此之民所有之争端,一邦之民凭二邦之权索地基而兴讼者,各邦并各邦之民与他国或他国之民有讼事,凡此皆属上国法司之权,可审而断也。

§59. Since the French Revolution of 1830, various changes have taken place in the local constitutions of the different Cantons, tending to give them a more democratic character; and several attempts have bee

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